Sunday, August 23, 2020

The Legend of El Dorado

The Legend of El Dorado El Dorado was a legendary city as far as anyone knows found some place in the unexplored inside of South America. It was supposed to be incredibly rich, with whimsical stories recounted gold-cleared avenues, brilliant sanctuaries and rich mines of gold and silver. Somewhere in the range of 1530 and 1650 or somewhere in the vicinity, a large number of Europeans looked through the wildernesses, fields, mountains, and waterways of South America for El Dorado, a considerable lot of them losing their lives all the while. El Dorado never existed with the exception of in the fevered minds of these searchers, so it was rarely found. Aztec and Inca Gold The El Dorado legend had its underlying foundations in the tremendous fortunes found in Mexico and Peru. In 1519, Hernn Cortes caught Emperor Montezuma and sacked the strong Aztec Empire, snatching a huge number of pounds of gold and silver and making rich men of the conquistadors who were with him. In 1533, Francisco Pizarro found the Inca Empire in the Andes of South America. Taking a page from Cortes book, Pizarro caught the Inca Emperor Atahualpa and held him for deliver, acquiring another fortune all the while. Lesser New World societies, for example, the Maya in Central America and the Muisca in present-day Colombia yielded littler (yet at the same time noteworthy) treasures. Would-Be Conquistadors Stories of these fortunes got out and about in Europe and soon a great many explorers from all over Europe were advancing toward the New World, planning to be a piece of the following undertaking. Most (yet not every one) of them were Spanish. These swashbucklers had almost no close to home fortune yet incredible desire: most had some experience battling in Europes numerous wars. They were savage, heartless men who had nothing to lose: they would get rich on New World gold or kick the bucket attempting. Before long the ports were overwhelmed with these future conquistadors, who might shape into huge undertakings and set off into the obscure inside of South America, regularly following the vaguest bits of gossip about gold. The Birth of El Dorado There was a trace of legitimacy in the El Dorado legend. The Muisca individuals of Cundinamarca (present-day Colombia) had a convention: lords would cover themselves in a clingy sap before covering themselves in gold powder. The lord would then take a kayak to the focal point of Lake Guatavit and, before the eyes of thousands of his subjects watching from shore, would jump into the lake, rising clean. At that point, an extraordinary celebration would start. This convention had been dismissed by the Muisca when of their disclosure by the Spanish in 1537, yet not before expression of it had arrived at the insatiable ears of the European interlopers in urban communities everywhere throughout the landmass. El Dorado, truth be told, is Spanish for the overlaid one: the term from the start alluded to an individual, the lord who canvassed himself in gold. As per a few sources, the man who instituted this adage was conquistador Sebastin de Benalczar. Development of the Myth After the Cundinamarca level was vanquished, the Spanish dug Lake Guatavit looking for the gold of El Dorado. Some gold was for sure found, yet not as much as the Spanish had sought after. Hence, they contemplated hopefully, the Muisca must not be the genuine realm of El Dorado and it should at present be out there some place. Undertakings, made out of late appearances from Europe just as veterans of the triumph, set out every which way to look for it. The legend developed as unskilled conquistadors passed the legend by listening in on others' conversations starting with one then onto the next: El Dorado was not just one ruler, yet a rich city made of gold, with enough riches for a thousand men to become rich until the end of time. The Quest Somewhere in the range of 1530 and 1650 or something like that, a great many men made many invasions into the unmapped inside of South America. A run of the mill campaign went something like this. In a Spanish beach front town on the South American terrain, for example, Santa Marta or Coro, an appealling, powerful individual would report a campaign. Somewhere in the range of one hundred to 700 Europeans, for the most part Spaniards would join, bringing their own covering, weapons, and ponies (in the event that you had a pony you got a bigger portion of the fortune). The endeavor would drive locals along to convey the heavier apparatus, and a portion of the better-arranged ones would bring domesticated animals (typically hoards) to butcher and eat en route. Battling hounds were constantly brought along, as they were helpful when battling antagonistic locals. The pioneers would regularly obtain vigorously to buy supplies. Following a few months, they were all set. The endeavor would take off, apparently toward any path. They would remain out for any time allotment from a few months to up to four years, looking through fields, mountains, waterways, and wildernesses. They would meet locals en route: these they would either torment or utilize with endowments to get data about where they could discover gold. Invariably, the locals pointed toward some path and said some variety of our neighbors toward that path have the gold you look for. The locals had immediately discovered that the most ideal approach to be freed of these discourteous, fierce men was to mention to them what they needed to hear and send them out the door. In the interim, diseases, departure, and local assaults would trim down the campaign. All things considered, the undertakings demonstrated shockingly versatile, conquering mosquito-invaded swamps, swarms of irate locals, bursting heat on the fields, overwhelmed waterways, and cold mountain passes. In the long run, when their numbers got excessively low (or when the pioneer kicked the bucket) the endeavor would surrender and get back. The Seekers of This Lost City of Gold Throughout the years, numerous men scanned South America for the unbelievable lost city of gold. Best case scenario, they were improvised pioneers, who rewarded the locals they experienced generally decently and helped map the obscure inside of South America. Even under the least favorable conditions, they were ravenous, fixated butchers who tormented their way through local populaces, murdering thousands in their vain journey. Here are a portion of the more recognized searchers of El Dorado: Gonzalo Pizarro and Francisco de Orellana: In 1541, Gonzalo Pizarro, sibling of Francisco Pizarro, drove an undertaking east from Quito. Following a couple of months, he sent his lieutenant Francisco de Orellana looking for provisions: Orellana and his menâ instead found the Amazon River, which they followed to the Atlantic Ocean.Gonzalo Jimã ©nez de Quesada: Quesada set out from Santa Marta with 700 men in 1536: in mid 1537 they arrived at the Cundinamarca level, home of the Muisca individuals, which they quickly won. Quesadas endeavor was the one that really found El Dorado, despite the fact that the insatiable conquistadors at the time would not concede that the average takings from the Muisca were the satisfaction of the legend and they kept looking.Ambrosius Ehinger: Ehinger was a German: at that point, some portion of Venezuela was regulated by Germans. He set out in 1529 and again in 1531 and drove two of the cruelest undertakings: his men tormented locals and sacked t heir towns perseveringly. He was executed by locals in 1533 and his men returned home. Lope de Aguirre: Aguirre was a warrior on Pedro de Ursã ºas 1559 endeavor which set out from Peru. Aguirre, a neurotic crazy, before long turned the men against Ursã ºa, who was killed. Aguirre in the end assumed control over the endeavor and started a rule of dread, requesting the homicide of a significant number of the first voyagers and catching and threatening the Island of Margarita. He was murdered by Spanish soldiers.Sir Walter Raleigh: this unbelievable Elizabethan squire is recognized as the man who acquainted potatoes and tobacco with Europe and for his sponsorship of the destined Roanokeâ colony in Virginia. Be that as it may, he additionally was a searcher of El Dorado: he thought it was in the good countries of Guyana and made two excursions there:â one in 1595â and per second in 1617. After the disappointment ofâ the second campaign, Raleigh was executed in England. Was It Ever Found? So,â was El Dorado at any point found? Kind of. Theâ conquistadorsâ followed stories of El Dorado to Cundinamarca but would not accept that they had discovered the legendary city, so they continued looking. The Spanish didnt know it, yet the Muisca human progress was the last significant local culture with any riches. The El Dorado they looked for after 1537 didn't exist. In any case, they looked and looked: many campaigns containing a huge number of men scoured South America until aboutâ 1800 when Alexander Von Humboldtâ visited South America and presumed that El Dorado had been a legend from the beginning. These days, you can discover El Dorado on a guide, in spite of the fact that its not the one the Spanish were searching for. There are towns named El Dorado in a few nations, including Venezuela, Mexico, and Canada. In the USA there are no less than thirteen towns named El Dorado (or Eldorado). Finding El Doradoâ is simpler than ever†¦just dont expect boulevards cleared with gold. The El Dorado legend has demonstrated versatile. The thought of a lost city of gold and the edgy men who look for it is simply unreasonably sentimental for authors and craftsmen to stand up to. Incalculable tunes, storiesâ books, and sonnets (counting one by Edgar Allen Poe) have been expounded regarding the matter. There is even a superhuman called El Dorado. Moviemakers, specifically, have been interested by the legend: as of late as 2010 a film was made about a cutting edge researcher who discovers intimations to the lost city of El Dorado: activity and shootouts follow.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Learning English in America Essay Example For Students

Learning English in America Essay At the point when I was 7 years of age I had shown up just to America. I didn’t know only the essential words like yes/no. I was in selected school the second seven day stretch of being here. I went directly to seventh grade. I strolled into class wearing blue Levis jean and a dim polo took care of, with my hair brushed to the side. At that point I sat close to this most lovely young lady I saw just because. I knew then that I needed to go to class each day. She was my age and constantly used to assist me with my perusing and composing. I additionally happened upon Fox Learner which was I acceptable approach to likewise assist me with my English. My proficiency in English truly came help from a lovely young lady who was so kind and keen, and Fox student I showed me numerous extraordinary thing and help me with my learning experience. Her name was Crystal and she was excellent. She was the young lady who sat close to me in my first grade class. What's more, has time passed by I drew nearer to here becoming more acquainted with her more and her becoming more acquainted with me. I disclosed to her how English was my subsequent langue and I dint know a lot. Be that as it may, right now, I needed to know as much English as possible, so I can have the option to converse with her more. At the point when we used to have perusing time in English, she would consistently assist me with choosing a book. Afterwards sit close to me and assist me with perusing it to her. I used to consistently attempt to understand quick so I didn’t need to articulate the word. So she will consistently stop me when she felt like I didn’t know the word and would make me sound it out until I felt OK with it. At the point when School was not going on and we had a break she would assist me with my perusing significantly more. Her mother was an English instructor at the secondary school so she would welcome me and we will do numerous great exercises together. I recall when her mother would consistently advise me to talk moderate. That I talk like new-yoker which I never realized why till I really went to New York and seen the distinction. There was consistently issue, with how quick I used to talk that individuals made some hard memories to get me. As my first grade day propped up I had shown signs of improvement. I gazed to peruse this Fox Learner books that had sound that helped me from numerous points of view. Once, I returned home from school and strolled through the entryway and saw that we got these new plastic bundles. I recollect seen the hues green, purple and orange; that likewise accompanied tapes. My mother has purchased the entire arrangement of Fox student for me and my siblings. Be that as it may, he realized English he was brought up here he even avoided an evaluation. Every shade of the book implied how simple or troublesome it was. I don’t know why yet at the time I was energized for those book, they were a truly were an exceptionally extraordinary thing to me while growing up. My first grade year arrived at end I was such a great amount of better in my English that I can talk and keep a discussion. I used to toss a couple of Arabic words out however the individuals around me despite everything got me. I even came genuine old buddies with Crystal and was exceptionally appreciative for the assistance that she had gave me help me with. I despite everything stay in contact with her till now. Furthermore, Fox Learner it was an extremely incredible encounter that I know didn’t just assistance me yet others and more to come. My proficiency in English truly came help from a delightful young lady who was so kind and brilliant, and Fox student I showed me numerous incredible thing and help me with my learning experience.

Thursday, July 9, 2020

The Ring Fencing Proposal Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Since the financial crisis in 2008, the economy around the world has been growing slowly, especially in developed countries. And stock markets in many counties experienced downturns. Fox example, the peak point is around 14,000 points for Dow Jones Industrial Average index in 2007, while it declined to 6,600 in 2009. Also the unemployment rate suffered badly, a larger number of youngsters cannot get a job and even some employee has to work less to share workload with other employee. In 2011, this global recession trigger European sovereign debt crisis, especially in Greece, Ireland, Portugal and Spain. In May 2011, one hundred thousand of people protest against the financial retrenchment in Athens. In UK Mervyn King, Bank of England governor, said this financial crisis might be the worst crisis that UK has ever meet. The financial crisis of 2007-2008 is considered to be the worst financial crisis since 1930s. The main reason, I think, is that the regulation of financia l markets did not keep pace with the creation of the financial derivative instrument, which lead to cash from taxpayers is used to rescue the irresponsible operation of big banks. On the other hand, when the investment strategies are successful, these major banks get profit. Therefore, the public is becoming so call scapegoat who clean up the mess. In order to deal with this problem, ring-fencing approach was introduced and backed by Chancellor George Osborne. A body of ring-fencing means an organization in UK which performs several core activities. Recently, the only core activity refers to the activity that accepts deposits. In fact, four provisions are included: (1) accepting deposits; (2) making payments; (3) withdrawing money; (4) over drafting. In this way, ring-fencing can be used to separate the excluded activities (risk activities) in the investment banking from the core activity. In practise, the real objective is to handle with the problem of too big to fall. In com bination with the resolution method and those banks which has the higher capital measures, it can be resolving the problem of too big to fall economically and operationally. However, many famous economists, like Paul Volcker, the former chairman of the Federal Reserve and the architect of the Volcker Rule argue that if the ring fence approach is put into effect, banks in UK will not safeguard taxpayers in foul weather. They think that total separation is a better choice for bank regulation. In history, total separation approach refers to Glass-Steagall Act, which is the first time to separate the commercial bank from investment bank. At that time, the investment bank stated to access the field of traditional banks, taking deposit. Under such circumstances, the profits of commercial banks were damaged significantly. Therefore, not only retail banks begin to invest their assets but also purchase new shares for reselling to the public. Greedy made baking industry tolerate huge ri sks in exchange of even larger return. Implementation of Glass-Steagall Act imposed the separation between retail banks and investment bank. From then on, the commercial banks are only allowed to do business with individuals and ordinary firm, and investment banks do riskier business, like mergers and acquisitions In order to promote the development of financial derivative instrument, the Glass-Steagall Act was repealed On November 12, 1999. Without the matched bank regulation, the rapid development of financial derivative instrument became the chief criminal of the financial crisis in 2007 again. In order to avoid the cash of taxpayer was used to clean up the mess again. The ring fence and the total separation approaches were presented by the UK government. While the ring fence approach was seemingly supported by the government. The Chancellor George Osborne announced that the major banks in UK will be totally separated if they cannot obey new rules to ring-fence risky investmen t business from retail business. Although the relative laws about the ring fence have been legislated, this will leave some problem inevitably: The accurate range of ring fence. This is what kinds of activities and assets can/cannot be included in the ring fencing body: there are still many different kinds of middle activities and assets that are not defined practically. The accurate content of exemption is unknown from ring- fence, for example the de minimis exemption. The specific prohibitive activities of the banks The definition of the derivative does not defined very specifically. Therefore, whether the ring-fence can be implemented or not is still a practical problem. Besides, compared to the total separation approach, the ring fencing method has many weak points. As the ICB acknowledged full separation might provide the strongest firewall to protect retail banking services from contagion effects of external shocks. In means if the domino effect (financial conta gion) happens, the ring fence model cannot provide enough protection to the financial system. Furthermore, whether the ring fence can solve the problem that the major banks are too large and too interrelated to fail or not are unknown, Supposed the ring fencing is implemented, there are still some banks that have assets beyond than UK annually GDP. In addition, there is not a necessary connection between capital levels and riskiness of a bank; we should not pay too much attention on stricter capital requirements. That is to say the taxpayers will still tolerate the huge risks of financial system. In the third place, the cost impact is still unclear. Although the estimation of cost for banking sector recommended by ICB is around  £4bn and  £7bn, the practical costs will be higher. Obviously, these costs would either transfer to the customers or be soaked up by the banks with lowering profits to shareholders. Therefore, it will cause that customers and shareholders change their mi nds to choose those banks with lower costs and higher return. In order to lower the costs, those banks may move their head quarters to other countries. On that day, the financial centre will become a bubble reputation for London. No matter what kind of approach we use, there is no doubt that the process of transferring a wholesale bank to a retail bank will be a milestone for bank regulation. In order to satisfy the requirement of ring-fence, we have to make a detailed analysis of the some accounting items, like assets and liabilities, which are inside or which are outside the ring fence part. All in all, there are still lots of blanks that need to be completed.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Uncertainty and Project Management Beyond the Critical...

UNCERTAINTY AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT: BEYOND THE CRITICAL PATH MENTALITY Arnoud De Meyer1), Christoph H. Loch2), Michael T. Pich3) 1) Professor of Technology Management, INSEAD ( 2) Associate Professor of Technology Management, INSEAD ( 3) Assistant Professor of Technology Management, INSEAD ( Keywords: project management, uncertainty, project profiles Abstract Project management is often identified with network planning techniques such as PERT, Critical Path Methods, Gantt Charts, etc. These techniques help us to cope with the management of complexity in a project. But projects are often confronted with a high level of†¦show more content†¦The final twenty percent is driving the site and keeping track of what is really happening out there. The Gantt chart is more a reflection of what happened last week, and what someone hopes will happen next week. †¦ The problem is that every play we run is an option play (and the Gantt chart fails to reflect that).† This reaction is typical for many of the project managers with whom we interacted. They don’t find the existing formal planning techniques very useful – the critical path method (CPM, PERT) and a plethora of heuristics, algorithms and concepts elaborating it. They dutifully draw the critical path, refer to it for formal performance review meetings, but often pay more attention to other factors. This may, of course, not always be the case: sometimes the Gantt chart is indeed the bible by which the project is managed. The problem faced by project managers is recognizing which approach is appropriate for the particular project at hand. Should they strictly enforce the discipline inherent in critical path thinking or should they adopt a more ‘contingent’ style of management, utilizing a set of tools and techniques better suited to the particular characteristics of the project? There are few guides to inform the project manager in this important decision. Managers are left to their intuition as to which methods and style of management to choose. The pressure to adopt the discipline ofShow MoreRelatedA Critique of the Critical Chain Approach to Project Management3777 Words   |  16 PagesCourse in Operations Management ASSIGNMENT 1: â€Å"A CRITIQUE OF THE CRITICAL CHAIN APPROACH TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT† 3,000 words excluding reference list and summary for Dr. Tom Mullen Anthony C Mould October 2003 Reprinted with the kind permission of Anthony C Moulds. This essay should be viewed as an example of a well written, structured, referenced and argued assignment. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Rise Of The Jacksonian Era - 1540 Words

The Jacksonian Era was often described as a time of â€Å"democratization of politics† in the United States. However, democracy, at this time, was only defined as equality and justice for white males. There were improvements that benefited the common people, such as universal male suffrage, but these excluded women, Africans, Indians, and the rest of the population in the country. In addition, Andrew Jackson was not very democratic as he violated the Constitution and used the authority of the government for his personal issues. Meanwhile, today’s American society is a true democracy because every citizen, despite sex and race, is protected and given equal rights and opportunities. Back then, the United States did not achieve true democratization because there was not equality among all the people and Andrew Jackson abused his power as president. One major improvement in the United States during the Jacksonian Era was the expansion of voting rights. In document one, th e map showed that all the states, except Kentucky and Vermont, permitted voting rights only to tax-paying landowners in 1800. By the time of the Election of 1828, in which Andrew Jackson was elected president, states removed their restrictions and all white men were allowed to vote. As a result, there appeared a significant increase in the number of voters and political participation. The common men were also able to hold public offices as they became more elective than appointive. Indeed, the universal maleShow MoreRelatedEssay about The Jacksonian Era1638 Words   |  7 PagesThree specific ways in which American expansion shaped the Jacksonian period was through the advancement of technology, by way of slavery, and the Indian Removal Act. Jackson used any political and economic means necessary in order to see American frontier regions expand across the nation. 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All the candidates were Democratic-Republican, but that didn’t seem to weigh heavily on the outcome of the election of 1824. The two front runners were John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson that would be decided by the House of Representatives because of the Twelve Amendment to the Constitution states the House will decide by majorityRead MoreAndrew Jackson Vs. Jacksonian Democracy1142 Words   |  5 PagesUsing the third chapter of The American Political Tradition analyzes the career of Andrew Jackson and the concept of â€Å"Jacksonian Democracy.† and other source materials. I will compare and contract Thomas Jefferson and Andrew Jackson. They both being influential political figures in two very different eras. Each formed their own democracy that helped shape the way we think about American government. Consequently, they had their differences, yet they also had their similarities. From many viewpoints

Khajuraho free essay sample

Once a great chandela capital, Khajuraho is now a quiet village. The town of exotic temples, Khajuraho is one of Indias major honeymoon attractions. They are Indias unique gift to the world, representing a melody to life,which encompasses all emotions ranging from love, to joy. Life, in every form and mood, has been captured in stone, testifying not only to the craftsmans artistry but also to the extraordinary breadth of vision of the Chandela kings. What to see The architecture of the temples are unique, being very different from the temple prototype of their period. The erotic carvings of temples, make it a must-see. Originally there were 85 temples, but many were destroyed by the British. Today, only 22 are in fair condition. Temples Khajuraho temple complex site is one the most popular places both foreign and Indian tourists. Temples of Khajuraho hold the attention of a visitor with their sculptural art, which is so exquisite and intricate, that one cannot even dream of cloning it now. We will write a custom essay sample on Khajuraho or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The artists creative instincts have beautifully captured various facets and moods of life in stone. The temples at Khajuraho are divided into three broad groups: †¢The Western Group It is the largest, compact and centrally located group in Khajuraho, includes some of the most prominent monuments, built by the Chandela rulers. The Lakshmana Temple, the Matangesvara Temple and the Varaha Temple form one complex and the Visvanatha and Nandi temples are not far from this complex. †¢The Eastern Group It comprises of five detached sub-groups in and around the present village of Khajuraho. The eastern group of monuments, situated in close proximity to the Khajuraho village, includes three Brahmanical temples known as Brahma, Vamana and Javari and three Jain temples, the Ghantai, Adinath and Parsvanath. †¢The Southern Group It is the most distant one comprising of two main monuments near and across the Khudarnala. The southern group of monuments comprises the Duladeo and the Chaturbhuja temples. The Duladeo is about a kilometre south of the Khajuraho village and half a mile southwest of the Jain group of temples. The Chaturbhuja Temple is a mile further south and is close to the Khajuraho airport. Dance Festival Visitors are also drawn to a dance festival, celebrated in March, which attracts some of the best classical dancers in the country the floodlit temples provide a spectacular backdrop during the event. In a setting where the earthly and the divine create perfect harmony, it is a spectacular event that celebrates the pure magic of the rich classical dance traditions of India.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

Nancy- a Complex Representation of a Victorian Fallen Woman free essay sample

We live in a society of unregulated media, and almost nothing is left to the imagination involving the portrayal of violence and criminality. Larry Wolff examines the criminals in Oliver Twist, and the possibility of not only Nancy being a prostitute, but also the young boys under Fagins watchful eye. Marcy Hess incisively shows that Nancy is a carefully wrought character that at once reflects the stereotypical traits of a Victorian prostitute, yet also has some of the characteristics of a virtuous middle class woman, â€Å"and thus renders false this supposedly truthful depiction of Nineteenth-century lower class prostitution† (Hess). Indeed, Nancy may be the most complex character in the novel. Even though she is a prostitute, and â€Å"the girl’s life had been squandered in the streets† (Dickens), she is the true heroine of the novel. Nancy is a fallen woman. Though her original nature is good, she is a victim of her environment and of circumstance. We will write a custom essay sample on Nancy- a Complex Representation of a Victorian Fallen Woman or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Nancy is a prostitute and a battered woman, who sacrifices herself to help Oliver; she is a complex representation of a Victorian lower-class prostitute in London. Dickens carefully crafted Oliver Twist in order to appeal to the queen and her subjects. Both Hess and Wolff examine Dickens’s 1841 preface to the novel to show his skillful development of the criminal characters to avoid censure and public outcry. Hess writes that, â€Å"To successfully enter the print marketplace of 1837, Dickens could not risk baldly stating that Nancy was a prostitute; thus he did not directly name her profession. To do so would have been to risk great public censure† (Hess). Before the turn of the century there were both fiction and non-fictional works that discussed prostitution, some even romanticizing the life of a harlot. The evangelical movement at the turn of the century, and a sweeping conservative backlash against the somewhat liberal and honest discussions of sexuality in the century before made prostitution an unacceptable subject for discussion, in fiction or public debate. This policy of avoidance and a conception of, the lower-class prostitute as both physical and moral contagion is evident in non-fiction works such as Thomas Smith’s â€Å"An Address to the Guardian Society† (1817) in which prostitutes are described as â€Å"leprosy and scurvy all over†¦ the body moral of this metropolis†, the visible â€Å"consequences and symptoms of a moral distemper†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ (Hess) From 1800 through the late 1830’s, the problem of prostitution was discussed almost solely in government literature and studies of England’s Female Penitentiaries. Dickens wrote about prostitution in earlier works but only in stereotypical terms, using the most accepted language to describe them. Hess insightfully discusses the Victorian stereotype of the prostitute: an unbonneted, dirty, drunken, cunning and ferocious woman, in shabby, gaudy clothes, wearing too much make-up, hair a mess (to suggest she has recently spent time on her back) who is also duplicitous, sneaky and an actress to boot. Early Victorian morals were such that the underclass was rarely identified openly in fiction. In â€Å"The Boys are Pickpockets and the Girl is a Prostitute†: Gender and Juvenile Criminality in Early Victorian England from Oliver Twist to London Labour† Wolff shows that if we read between the lines of Oliver Twist, it is possible that the boys who were pickpockets and petty thieves were also used as prostitutes, not just Nancy. Wolff quotes Dickens preface of Oliver Twist in 1841 when he explains his purposeful avoidance of naming Nancy as a prostitute. No less consulting my own taste, than the manners of the age, I endeavoured, while I painted it in all its fallen and degraded aspect, to banish from the lips of the lowest character I introduced, any expression that could possibly offend; and rather to lead to the unavoidable inference that its existence was of the most debased and vicious kind, than to prove it elaborately by words and deeds. In the case of the girl in particular, I kept this intention constantly in view. Whether it is apparent in the narrative, and how it is executed, I leave my readers to determine (Wolff). Wolff correctly points out that â€Å"Dickens leaves a lot for his readers to determine- by inference- especially concerning what is most debased and vicious in the world of his criminal characters. † (Wolff) Wolffs hypothesis is that it is sociologically plausible that orphaned and runaway boys in a big city like London controlled by an immoral old criminal such as Fagin could be exploited and sold for sex, just as Nancy has been exploited. Larry Wolff explores the possibility that the young boys in â€Å"Oliver Twist† may have been used by Fagin as prostitutes, though Dickens never actually labels Nancy as a prostitute in the novel, and the boys are called pickpockets and prigs, rather than thieves. There is no suggestion of their sexual exploitation in the novel, though when examined closely, the likely hood exists.